ARTICLE: CHAPTER I
By: Dr. Waspodo Tjipto Subroto, M.Pd
Social knowledge is knowledge that must be understood by elementary school students to be able to society and the state even skilled play in the globalization era. Through the Social Science subjects, student directed, guided and assisted to become Indonesian citizens and effective world citizens (KBK SD and MI, 2003:1). Indonesian citizenship and effective global citizens is a formidable challenge because the dynamics of the evolving society and the era of globalization is always changing in every moment. So the Social Science subjects have designed to build and reflecting students’ skills in life that is always growing continuously.
Social Science subjects in primary aims as follows:
1. Teaches the basic concepts of sociology, geography, economics, history and citizenship through pedagogical and psychological approaches.
2. Develop the ability to think critically and creatively, inkuiri, solve problems, and social skills.
3. Build commitment and awareness of social values and humanity.
4. Increasing cooperation and the ability to compete in a pluralistic society, both nationally and globally. (KBK SD and MI, 2003:1)
To achieve these objectives should be developed learning model is conducive and stimulating students to enthusiastic in participating in the learning process of Social Science in the Elementary School. All the potential that exists in the student needs to be developed in an optimal and comprehensive through learning activities designed by teachers. The teacher’s role in creating and directing the learning activities so dominant that the quality and success of the learning activities are often dependent on the ability of teachers in selecting and applying the learning model. According to Kosasih (1992: 23) and the model selection method is the ability and learning the basic skills teachers should possess. This is based on the assumption that the accuracy of teachers in choosing models and methods will affect student learning outcomes (Jarolimek, 1992:127).
Learning activities in elementary schools in general are still emphasizes aspects of knowledge (cognitive) and less actively involve students in teaching and learning. Also in Social Knowledge learning, teachers felt teaching with learning materials delivered, but the students involved in an optimal less so with sufficient knowledge and skills to live in a society less adequate (Somantri Numan, 1996). Teachers assume that social knowledge is knowledge that can be transformed intact from the teacher’s mind to the minds of students, so that learning models that emphasize the transformation of knowledge dominating aspect in teaching and learning activities.
In an effort to improve the quality of teaching and learning activities Social Sciences, have developed a model capable of learning that involve students actively and creatively in the learning process. Cooperative learning model of learning one model that can foster students’ active involvement in learning activities. This learning model departs from the premise “getting better together” which emphasizes the provision of learning opportunities and broader atmosphere conducive to the students to acquire and develop knowledge, attitudes and values and social skills are useful in the community khidupan. Learning cooperative learning model, students not only learn and accept what is presented by the teachers but also learn from other students as well as other students can membelajarkan.
Learning with cooperative learning model, able to stimulate and develop the potential of students in an atmosphere optimal learning in small groups consisting of 4 to 6 students (Stahl, 1994). By the time students learn in a group will develop an open learning atmosphere in dimension occurs kesejawatan and collaboration in a personal relationship of mutual need. Learning climate that took place in an atmosphere of openness and democracy will provide an opportunity for students to obtain optimal information about the materials and training dibelajarkan attitudes and social skills as stock in the life of the community (Slavin, 1992). In this model the teacher is not only a resource but rather act as facilitators, mediators and managers of learning. At the time of learning in small groups will grow and develop learning patterns of peer tutoring (peer tutoring) and learning cooperatively. In addition, cooperative learning model learning is also growing self-awareness and practice the skills of students of social values, responsibility, caring, openness, friendship and democratic soul (Stahl, 1994). Cooperation and unity are the values developed in this learning model, which helps develop social skills in everyday life.
Indicators cooperative learning model to develop learning aligned with learning climate conducive to the achievement of the goals of Social Pengatahuan subjects in primary school. Application of this learning model will help students in developing knowledge, attitudes and especially the social skills that are useful in life in society.
Increasing cooperation and the ability to compete in a pluralistic society, both nationally and globally is one of the goals of the Social Science subjects. Achieve students become Indonesian citizens and effective world citizens is a challenge, because life in a global society full of competition and always change continuously in line with the progress of science and technology. Social Knowledge Learning should be designed in a systematic and kompehensif, so students have the knowledge and skills effectively in the life of the community. (KBK SD and MI, 2003).
One model of learning that are expected to nurture and train students’ skills in social life is “cooperative learning”. The rationale for “getting better together” will provide a conducive atmosphere to develop the knowledge and social skills useful in community life. Students not only learn to accept what the teacher presented, but can also learn from the experience of other friends and redundancy can membelajarkan friends in kesejawatan atmosphere and collaborative spirit in the dimension of personal relationship of mutual benefit. Learning climate that took place in an atmosphere of openness and democratic will provide optimal opportunities for students to obtain information and practice social skills.
The focus of the problems presented in this paper is “How can the effectiveness of cooperative learning model of learning in achieving the goals of Social Science subjects in primary school?”
Cooperative LEARNING LEARNING MODEL
A. Understanding Cooperative Learning Model
Cooperative implies working together to achieve common goals (Hamid Hasan, 1996). In cooperative activities, students are together looking for a profitable outcome for all members of the group. Learning is the use of cooperative small group learning that allows students to work together to maximize their learning and study other members of the group (Johnson, 1994; Hamid Hasan, 1996) . Meanwhile, according to Slavin (1992) cooperative learning is a learning model where students learn and work in small groups collaboratively with members consisting of 4 to 6 people, with a group structure that is heterogeneous. In this case, learn from success depends on the ability of groups and group activities, both individually and in groups.
In essence, cooperative learning implies a common attitude and behavior in work or helping among group members on a regular cooperation structures in the group, which comprises 2 or more, where the success of cooperation is strongly influenced by the contribution from each member of the group. In cooperative learning models have the common task structure in an atmosphere of togetherness among the group members. Motives in cooperation, each individual faced with the choice of preposition and should be followed, whether choosing attitude cooperate, compete or individualist.
Cooperative learning is more than just learning groups or study groups, because learning in cooperative learning model should be “incentive structure and the task is cooperative”, which allows for open interaction and relationships that are effective interdependence among group members (Slavin , 1992). In addition, the pattern of relationships that enable the emergence of a positive perception about what they can do to be successful based on individual skill and contribution to the group. According to Stahl (1994) model of cooperative learning puts students learning as part of a system of cooperation in achieving an optimal outcome in the study.
So learning cooperative learning model to develop learning atmosphere interactions that take place in the mutual trust, open, relaxed among group members and provides opportunities for students to obtain and provide input in between them to develop knowledge, attitudes, values, morals and skills-skills to be developed in learning. Patterns of interaction that is openness and trust is very important for students to gain success in learning, because every time they can do the discussion, sharing of knowledge and skills as well as other inter-correct each other in learning.
B. Basic Concept Learning Cooperative Learning Model
There are some basic concepts that need to be considered and sought by the teachers in implementing cooperative learning model of learning in the classroom. According to Stahl (1994) teachers must consider the conceptual basics of cooperative learning model of learning, among others:
1. Clarity of definition of learning objectives
2. Overall revenue by students about learning goals
3. Positive dependence
4. Openness in the interaction of learning
5. Individual responsibility
6. Heterogeneous group
7. Attitude and positive social behavior
8. Debriefing (reflection and internalization)
9. Satisfaction in learning.
The concepts above in their implementation often comes the assumption that the implementation of cooperative learning teaching model is one or a few basic concepts are targeted. This assumption resulted in the effectiveness and productivity of this model academically less than optimal. To apply this model teachers need to understand and be able to develop a learning plan that allows the entire application including the basic concept of this model. Teachers need to develop a conducive atmosphere for study groups and relationships, interpersonal nature among members of the group. The main requirements that must be considered by the teachers is how to condition students to work together before starting the learning process by using a model of cooperative learning (Stahl, 1994).
C. Learning mechanism according to Cooperative Learning Model
Structurally, according to Stahl (1994) flow model of cooperative learning lessons has some characteristics, which distinguish the other learning models, namely:
1. Individual accountability
2. Social skills
3. Positive Interdependence
4. Group processing
5. Face-to-face Promotive interaction
Learning process based model of cooperative learning in the design and implementation philosophical rationale which is “getting better together”, meaning that to get something better in the study should be done together. To create a “togetherness” in learning, teachers should design learning programs to consider aspects of togetherness so that students can formulate the condition and learning and teaching in an interactive active interaction in an atmosphere of “togetherness” not only in the classroom but also outside the classroom.
To streamline the implementation of cooperative learning model of learning, teachers must decide these things as follows:
1. The number and size of student groups to be formed
2. Membership of student groups must be hiterogen
3. Material and labor system that will be applied in learning
4. Room settings and the position of each group in the classroom,
5. Patterns and forms of evaluation tools that will be used to assess students. (Stahl, 1994)
APPLICATION OF MODEL Cooperative LEARNING
A. Teaching Social Science
As an implementer and developer learning activities, teachers must be able to choose and design the best possible learning programs for the development of potential students (Kosasih, 1992; Azis Wahab, 1996). Development and design of this study should be consistent with the purpose and essence of the subjects that will dibelajarkan. Social Science Education is a subject that has a strategic function and role in the formation of good citizens and reliable in accordance with national development goals (Sumantri, 1996). Social Science Education are expected to prepare students to be good citizens and capable society and able to anticipate changes in society (Kosasih, 1992). Teacher required more careful in selecting a model capable of learning and learning design so interesting, actual and functional for students .
In the implementation of the Social Science teaching in elementary schools, in general, teachers are still using the approach and the conventional learning models. Lecture method of teaching techniques often dominates, thus less able to stimulate students to engage actively in the learning process. Sentries pattern approach for learning teacher had not switched to students sentries. The learning process tends to emphasize the cognitive aspects resulting in less potential to develop affective and psychomotor owned students. (Suwarma, 1991). This condition is less encouraging the development of student potential in a comprehensive and optimal, less able to encourage students to actualize their potential in a comprehensive and creativity of students do not develop optimally.
Empirical analysis of the learning process at the School of Social Knowledge Base provides an illustration that is not much different from the above opinion. Model and conventional learning methods rely on students’ speech is very harmful because they have less potential to develop optimally. Cognitive aspects of development is less balanced with the development of affective and psychomotor potential for transformation of learning more knowledge from teacher to students.
In an effort to achieve the Social Science subjects which students build and establish a citizen of Indonesia and effective global citizens, it is necessary to develop learning programs that can change and improve the learning patterns of Social Science in Primary Schools in the direction that reflects the interaction pattern of a conducive learning and support the development of an optimal potential of students.
B. Application of Cooperative Learning Model
Cooperative learning model of learning is one alternative that is expected to improve the quality of the process in Social Science subjects, especially to realize the goal of teaching Social Pengatahuan heavy enough, namely: improving the ability cooperate and compete in a pluralistic society, both nationally and globally. This model allows students to engage actively in developing the knowledge, attitudes and skills in the open atmosphere of learning and demokrastis.
Application of cooperative learning models in Knowledge Social learning will result in some advantages and value in developing students’ potential, namely: (Stahl, 1994)
1. Increase the sense of individual responsibility
2. Growing dependence are positive
3. Terbinanya allows an open relationship
4. Enable the development of social skills in an optimal
5. train students to live in a society
The use of cooperative learning model of learning in Social Knowledge learning to focus on several aspects, namely:
1. Merger use of the types of learning in groups, such as: formal
cooperative learning, informal cooperative learning, and cooperative learning base on –
2. The basic components of collaboration, namely: positive interdependence,
open direct interaction, individual abilities, skills –
social skills and group work processes.
3. Foster an atmosphere of cooperation in the classroom routine, such as: application of the model
learning cooperative learning in teaching and learning.
In addition to encouraging students in ketercapaian purpose, the application of cooperative learning model is also growing enthusiasm in implementing the teacher learning. Model foster a dynamic learning atmosphere, where students not only become the object of merely learning but also as a tutor for other students (Slavin, 1992). This is because each member of the group has two basic responsibilities, namely: (1) learn and understand the learning material, (2) helping a friend learn to be able to comprehend and understand, as there is in him. The concept of peer tutoring is one karaketristik this model, namely at the time of collaborative learning in an atmosphere of togetherness in small groups, will grow in a positive interaction between students. In addition, students not only trying to understand the material but also required him to mengembankan optimum potential for success of the group. One of the potential development of social skills and attitudes that students should be shown when they issued opinions or accept opinions of others.
C. Implementation steps Cooperative Learning Model
One of the aspects that need to be considered in applying the model of cooperative learning is the teacher’s role in designing the group structure that will apply to students. Group structure should be hiterogen, so the recognition and understanding of the student teacher and his class was to determine the effectiveness and productivity of this model, both in the acquisition of learning and training process in the development of social skills of students.
Based on the above concept, the implementation steps in the model of cooperative learning in general education can be described operations as follows: (Stahl, 1994; Slavin, 1992)
1. The first step is to design a teacher made learning program plan. In this step the teacher to consider and determine the learning targets to be achieved in learning. In addition, teachers also set the attitude and social skills that are expected to be developed and demonstrated by students during learning. In designing the program, teachers should organize materials and student assignments that reflect the small group work system. This means that the material and the task to be done in dibelajarkan and dimensions work together in groups. To start learning, teachers should explain the goals and attitudes and social skills, and demonstrated the students achieved. This needs to be presented to enable students to understand what should be done during the learning process berlasngusng.
2. The second step of learning in the classroom applications, teacher observation sheet designed to be used to observe student activities in work groups. Teachers no longer deliver the material at length because of the understanding and deepening of the students will do when learning together. Teachers only explain the main points of the material that students have the knowledge and proper orientation of the material being taught. Finished presenting materials, teachers explore students’ knowledge and understanding of the material based on what has been learned. This is intended to condition students’ learning readiness. Next, the teacher guides students to form groups. Understanding and conception of the student teachers individually determine the togetherness of the group formed. By the time students learn in groups, teachers ‘monitoring and observing students’ learning activities based on obervasi sheets that have been designed previously.
3. The third step, the observation of student activities, teacher guides and directs students, individually or in groups to understand the material and students’ attitudes and behavior during his studies. Giving praise and constructive criticism is an important aspect to be teachers when students work in group. When students engage in discussions in each group, the teacher periodically provide services to students individually or in the classical.
4. The fourth step, the teacher gives students an opportunity to dsari each group to present their work. At the time this class discussion the teacher acting as moderator. This is intended to guide and correct the students’ understanding and comprehension of the material or work which has been shown. At the last student presentations, the teacher invites students to reflect on the process of self-learning course, with the aim to improve the weaknesses of deviant behavior or attitude is done during learning. In addition, teachers also gave some emphasis on values, attitudes, and social behavior that must be developed and trained by the students. In self-reflection, teachers still play a role as an active mediator and moderator. That is, the development of ideas, suggestions and criticisms of the learning process should be sought from students, and teachers did make improvements and direction of ideas, suggestions and criticisms are developed.
In the cooperative learning model of learning, teachers must be able to cover people living in an atmosphere of learning in the classroom so that students have the concept and feel the atmosphere of a real society. Thus students are able to understand reality as early as possible that people will diterjuninya.
Based on the analysis developed in this paper, there are some things that can be concluded, among other things:
1. Cooperative learning model of learning can have an effective contribution in achieving the learning objectives at the Social Science subjects in primary school when teachers have a professional performance in his capacity as executor and curriculum developer in the classroom.
2. Cooperative learning model of learning can improve student learning outcomes in relation to the understanding of matter, the development of attitudes and social skills. Improving student learning outcomes was obtained from an atmosphere of openness and kepedulaian teachers in developing learning climate of democratic, open, cooperative and collaborative academic partnership in climate.
3. Cooperative learning model of learning can encourage an atmosphere of active learning and interactive. In this model there are efforts to increase the excitement, motivation, and the intimacy between teachers and students and students with other students. The teacher’s role as a democratic learning manager determines that an active interaction activities and interactive.
Some suggestions that can be presented in this paper are as follows:
1. To improve the quality of the learning process of the Social Science subjects in primary school, teachers are encouraged to occasionally apply the learning cooperative learning model to deliver an appropriate subject, so that the goals can be more effective and efficient.
2. The atmosphere of openness, democratic and collaborative learning should be created in the Social Science in Primary Schools, for understanding the knowledge, attitudes and social skills students can develop more optimal.
3. Social Knowledge learning in elementary school, communication is important to build an active and interactive, so the excitement and motivation of students and teachers in learning can be improved.
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